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专升本虚拟语气重点复习三:条件句中的虚拟语气

2010-08-12 来源:读书人 
判断是真实条件句还是非真实条件句。只有在非真实条件句中才使用虚拟语气。通过句子意思,看假设的条件是否能够实现,能够实现是真实条件句,不能使用虚拟语气假设的条件不能实现则是非真实条件句,要用虚拟语气。

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  虚拟语气表示一种不能实现的假设。该语法主要用于if条件状语从句。

  一、if引导的条件状语从句的分类及虚拟条件句的判断

  1、可以把条件句分为两类:

  1)、真实条件句:凡是假设的情况发生性可能很大,就是真实条件句。

  句型条件从句主句

  一般现在时shall/will + 动词原形

  祈使句

  情态动词一般现在时

  例如:

  ⑴、If I have time , I will help you with this work.如果我有时间会帮助你做此工作的。

  ⑵、As long as I say anything wrong, you must point it out.只要我说了什么错话,你一定要指出来。

  ⑶、If time permits,we’ll go fishing together.(如果有时间的话,我们就一起去钓鱼。)

  注意:

  l 在真实条件句中,主句不能用be going to表示将来,该用shall, will.

  (错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.

  (对) If you leave now, you will never regret it.

  l 表示真理时,主句谓语动词不用shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。

  2)、虚拟条件句(Sentences of Unreal Condition):当假设是不大可能实现时,就是虚拟条件句。例如:

  ⑴、If I were you , I would have attended the meeting. 如果我是你的话,就去参加会议了。

  ⑵、If he had come here yesterday, he would have seen his old friend.假如他昨天来这儿的话,就会看见他的老朋友。

  ⑴、If it had rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.(如果昨天下雨的话,我们就会留在家里。)

  2、if条件状语从句中虚拟语气的判断

  判断是真实条件句还是非真实条件句。只有在非真实条件句中才使用虚拟语气。通过句子意思,看假设的条件是否能够实现,能够实现是真实条件句,不能使用虚拟语气;假设的条件不能实现则是非真实条件句,要用虚拟语气。

  判断这个假设是与哪个事实相反。通常有三种情况:①与过去事实相反。②与现在事实相反。③与将来事实可能相反。

  3、“后退一步法”

  后退一步法是指在准确地判断了该句与哪一事实相反后,按虚拟语气的后退一步法处理从句谓语动词的时态。即:在非真实条件状语从句中,谓语动词按正常情况“后退一步”。也就是:

  ①与过去事实相反,在从句中用过去完成时形式表示。

  ②与现在事实相反,在从句中用一般过去时形式表示。

  ③与将来事实相反,在从句中用过去将来时(were to+ do)/一般过去时/should do形式表示。

  主句中则用情态动词would, should, could 等加一个与从句一致的动词形式。

  a. 与现在事实相反的假设

  条件从句主句

  一般过去时(be用were)should(would)等 +动词原形

  例如: 如果他们在这儿,会帮助你的。

  b. 与过去事实相反的假设

  条件从句主句

  过去完成时

  should(would)等+ have+ 过去分词

  例如:如果他昨天来的话,我会把这件事告诉他的。

  c. 表示对将来不大可能发生的事情的假想

  条件从句主句

  一般过去时should/would等 + 动词原形

  were+ 不定式

  should+ 动词原形

  例如: 如果你将来成功了,一切都会好的(be all right)。

  More examples:

  ⑴、If I had come here yesterday, I would have seen him.

  ⑵、If I were a teacher,I would be strict with my students.

  ⑶、If it should snow tomorrow, they couldn’t go out.

  二、虚拟语气在if 引导的条件句中的用法:

  (一)、表示与现在事实相反的情况。其句子结构为:

  从句:if + 主语+ 动词的过去式(be 用were) + ……

  主句:主语+ would (should, could , might) + 动词原形+ ……

  例:

  1.如果天气好,我去那儿。

  2.如果时间允许的话,我再写一遍。

  3.要是现在不下雪的话,我们就不会待在屋里。

  4. 要是我处于你地位我会怎么办?       8.If it weren‘t for your help,we would get into trouble.

  9.If we had the manpower, we could open up even more land.

  10. 如果她懂英文,她就不必要我帮了。

  注意:如果动作在进行中,主句要用:"主语+ would be + 进行式动词+ ……"

  14. If they were here, he would be speaking to them now.

  (从句用过去式动词were, 主句用would be speaking)

  (二)、表示与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句。其句子结构为:

  从句:If + 主语+ had +过去完成式动词+ ……

  主句:主语+ would (should, could, might) + have +过去完成式动词+……

  例如:

  ⑴、If you ( take ) my advice, you ( make ) such a mistake.

  如果你听了我的劝告,就不会犯这样的错误。

  ⑵I ( be ) able to write such good novels if I( live ) among the peasants for five years.

  如果我不是和农民生活了五年,就不可能写出这样好的小说

  ⑶、如果你不邀请我,我就不会来参加你的舞会。

  ⑷If it ( not be ) for your help, I (finish) this work on time.

  要是没有你们的帮忙,我就不会按时完成了这项工作。

  ⑸If he (not break) the law, he (be put) into prison.

  6.If I (be)your headmaster, I (dismiss) you from school. 我要是你们校长的话,就把你开除学籍了。(事实上我不是)

  7. 如果你当时听从我的劝告的话,你就不会在考试中失败了。

  (三)、表示与将来事实相反的虚拟条件句(对将来的事实实现的可能性不大)。其句子结构为:

  从句:If + 主语+ should (或were to) + 动词原形+……

  主句:主语+ would (could, should, might) + 动词原形+……

  例如:

  1.如果你再做这样的事情,就会受到惩罚。

  2.假如我更努力学习的话,我会取得更大的进步。

  3. If it (rain) tomorrow, I (stay) at home.

  如果明天下雨的话,我将待在家里。

  三、混合条件句——主从句时间不一致情况下的虚拟语气

  有时条件从句中的动作和结果与主句中的动作,发生的时间不一致,这时动作的形式应根据它所表示的时间加以调整。如:

  1. 从句表示过去,主句表示将来:

  (1) If they (start) the early morning yesterday, they (be) here now.

  ⑵If we (make) adequate preparations, we (not dare) to do the experiment next week.

  2. 从句表示将来,主句表示过去:

  ⑴If I (not make) a preparation for my experiment this afternoon, I (go ) to see the film with you last night.

  3.从句表示将来,主句表示现在:

  If we ( not have) an exam this afternoon, I would go shopping now.

  4.从句表示过去,主句表示现在。

  If you (follow) my advice, you (be) able to finish the work now.

  如果你当时听了我的话,现在就能完成这份工作了。

  5.从句表示现在,主句表示过去

  ⑴、If I (be) you, I (go) to her birthday party last night.

  如果我是你,我昨晚就去参加她的生日晚会了

  6.从句表示过去,主句表示过去和现在

  If you (not lend)me some money, I (not buy) the new house and most likely I (live) in the dangerous house now. ous house now.

  假若你不借钱给我,我不可能买下这幢新房,很可能现在还住在危房里。

  四、含蓄条件句

  非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表出来,只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句。含蓄条件句大体有三种情况;

  1. 条件暗含在短语或从句中。用“without/but for/in the absence of 等引导短语”或者 “or, or else, otherwise加分句”表示“要不是”,“如果没有”“否则”(相当于if it were not for…)表示条件时,句中一般用虚拟语气。

  1.Without your help, I couldn’t finish my work on time.

  2. In the absence of water and air, nothing could live.

  3.We didn’t know his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him.

  4. But for your help,we could not have succeeded in the experiment..

  2. 条件暗含在上下文中。如:

  (7)、You might stay her forever. 你可以永远待在这儿。(可能暗含if you wanted to)

  (8)、We would have succeeded. 我们本来是会成功的。(可能暗含if we had kept trying)

  (10)、I would appreciate a little of your time. 谢谢你给我一点时间吧。(可能暗含if you were so kind as to give me a little of your time)

  3. 在不少情况下,虚拟式已变成习惯说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。如:

  (11)、You wouldn‘t know. 你不会知道。

  (12)、I would like to come. 我愿意来。

  (13)、I wouldn‘t have dreamed of it. 这是我做梦也不会想到的。

  14He told the story in such minute detail that he might himself have been an eye-witness. 他将那事讲的非常仔细,简直就象他亲眼看见一样。

  五、条件从句中省略if 采用倒装语序的情况

  在if引导的表示虚拟的条件状语从句中,有时可以把含有助动词、情态动词、be或have的虚拟条件句中的连词if 省去,而将had , should, were 等词提到主语之前,即用倒装结构。

  例如:

  1)、原句:If she were younger, she would do it.

  去If:Were she younger, she would do it. (把动词were移到主语she的前面)

  2)、原句:If he had tried it, he could have done it.

  去If:

  3)、如果当时他学习再刻苦一点,那次考试就通过了。

  4)、他如果明天走的话,周五就能到达了。

  5)、( ) right now, she would get there on Sunday.

  A. Would she leave B. If she leaves C. Were she to leave D. If she had left

  6) ( ) for my illness I would have lent him a helping hand.

  A. Not being B. Had it not been C. Without being D. Not having been

  7)、Should it rain next week, the farmers would have a good harvest.


(作者:读书人网友 编辑:kind887)
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