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2012.7.18更新GMAT阅读机经(1)

2012-07-19 来源:读书人 
最新更新GMAT阅读机经

  21、关于海豹的研究

  考古原文!(感谢救救痘包~)

  Until recently, zoologists believed that all species of phocids (true seals), a pinniped family, use a different maternalstrategy than do otariids (fur seals and sea lions), another pinniped family. Mother otariids use a foraging strategy. They acquire moderate energy stores in the form of blubber before arriving at breeding sites and then fast for 5 to 11 days after birth. Throughout the rest of the lactation (milk production) period, which lasts from 4 months to 3 years depending on the species, mother otariids alternately forage at sea, where they replenish their fat stores, and nurse their young at breeding sites. Zoologists had assumed that females of all phocid species, by contrast, use a fasting strategy in which mother phocids, having accumulated large energy stores before they arrive at breeding sites, fast throughout the entire lactation period, which lasts from 4 to 50 days depending on the species. However, recent studies on harbor seals, a phocid species, found that lactating females commenced foraging approximately 6 days after giving birth and on average made 7 foraging trips during the remainder of their 24-day lactation period.

  The maternal strategy evolved by harbor seals may have to do with their small size and the large proportion of their fat stores depleted in lactation. Harbor seals are small compared with other phocid species such as grey seals, northern elephant seals, and hooded seals, all of which are known to fast for the entire lactation period. Studies show that mother seals of these species use respectively 84 percent, 58 percent, and 33 percent of their fat stores during lactation. By comparison, harbor seals use 80 percent of their fat stores in just the first 19 days of lactation, even though they occasionally feed during this period. Since such a large proportion of their fat stores is exhausted despite feeding, mother harbor seals clearly cannot support all of lactation using only energy stored before giving birth. Though smaller than many other phocids, harbor seals are similar in size to most otariids. In addition, there is already some evidence suggesting that the ringed seal, a phocid species that is similar in size to the harbor seal, may also use a maternal foraging strategy.

  讲的是一种o和其它 h哺育幼仔的方法不同 它们哺育的更快 两段 第一段说o和h哺育方式不同但是最近发现h也挺快 第二段讲一个s和h哺育的比较。 (by 于慧小沫沫)

  22、治疗一种病...

  第一段说是 经常吃很多含有某种oil的食物会导致什么病。一般人们通过吃药或者吃含有较多potein的食物来治疗。

  第二段说 最近发现另一种更加 natural 和 有效的药房。解释其作用原理。

  第三段说 这种药方的负面作用比较大。容易引起高血压啊,心脏病一类的疾病。

  (by 茶瑞诗)

  :经常吃O6回到是一种病导致免疫力下降,从而提升其他致命病的比例。一般人们通过吃药或者吃含有较多protein的食物来治疗。

  P2:最近发现另一种更加 natural O3可以抑制这个问题。

  P3:为什么用O3不用drug治疗,因为这是非处方药(大概这个意思。。。) 比较容易获得,可能有些人会成瘾导致滥用这种药物,过度使用drug会引起一些负面的其他一些疾病(貌似有心脏病什么的。。。),所以O3比DRUG好 (by 君子兰justina)

  23、欧洲对美国印第安人独立主权态度

  欧洲队美国印第安人的好像是自主权?还是独立权?反正是SOV什么什么的单词....(sovereignty )说欧洲人对美国印第安人的这个SOV....又开始是承认的~后来由于欧洲由英国占多数话语权~英国好像对这个SOV....不是很认可....后来由于美国的什么运动又让这个sov....被认可...(by 救救痘包)

  24、恐龙化石

  考古学里面,有人不同意说鸟的祖先是某某恐龙,因为化石时间上不吻合。不过,后来发现了新化石,时间就吻合了。 又有人异议说,那种恐龙没有鸟的hollow bone,不过后来又挖到新化石了,就又证明了。 再有人异议说,鸟的lung和恐龙的lung结构不同,(鸟的适合高空飞嘛),这个目前还cannot say whether true or false, 因为没有相关化石。 有道题,我就选了lung。 还有问文章说明了什么,选了theory不一定是错的,只是化石发现时间比较慢。(by chensixu23)

  考古已确认

  Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs, some scientists remain unconvinced. They argue that theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica – the oldest known bird – appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods – the closest known relatives of birds – date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx. In any case, failure to find fossils of a predicted kind does not rule out their existence in an undiscovered deposit. Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the “wishbone”) of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods. This objection was reasonable when only early theropod clavicles had been discovered, but fossilized theropod clavicles that look just like the wishbone of Archaeopteryx have now been unearthed. Finally, some scientists argue that the complex lungs of birds could not have evolved from theropod lungs, an assertion that cannot be supported or falsified at the moment, because no fossil lungs are preserved in the paleontological record.

  题目T-4-Q5

  The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A. compare the development of two hypotheses concerning the evolutionary origin of birds

  B. suggest revisions to the standard theory of the evolutionary history of birds

  C. evaluate the usefulness of fossil evidence in determining the evolutionary history of birds

  D. challenge the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs

  E. respond to criticisms of the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs

  T-4-Q6

  In the context of the passage, the phrase “fossils of a predicted kind”(line 16) most likely refers to which of the following?

  A. Theropod fossils with fused clavicles

  B. Theropod fossils that are similar in structure to Archaeopteryx fossils

  C. Theropod fossils dating back more than 150 million years

  D. Fossils indicating the structure of theropod lungs

  E. Fossils indicating the structure of Archaeopteryx lungs

  T-4-Q7

  Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs?

  A. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx.

  B. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs’ lungs.

  C. Theropod dinosaurs appear in the fossil record about 150 million years ago.

  D. Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.

  E. Theropod dinosaurs had certain bones that look just like those of Archaeopteryx.

  25、语言的起源

  第三篇是讲语言的起源,通常的做法是看几种语言之间的共同点来判断他们是不是同一起源的。但马上给了一个反例,A,B,C虽然有很多共同点,但不是同一个ancestor(此处有题). 然后又举了个D语言,说这种语言的人不太喜欢引用其他语言例如E,虽然共性不多但实际上确是和E一个起源的。后面又举了一些FGH语言的例子,忘了。题目有主旨题。

  (by foolishfatty)

  26、可回收材料

  第四篇是关于可回收材料的,说一个回收材料的公司运营压力大,整个一套收集啊处理啊下来的成本是150-200元。不用处理这些可回收材料的公司只要50-100元。因此呼吁政府补贴啊神马的。 (by foolishfatty)


(作者:读书人网友 编辑:kind887)
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