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专家解读2013年6月大学英语四级阅读真题

2013-06-21 来源:读书人 
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  这次四级仔细阅读考试出题上依旧遵循之前的基本原则:依照原文自然顺序出题、多以考察细节信息的理解为主、喜欢考察转折等重要逻辑现象处的信息、正确选项基本都是原文有明显来源的改写或是替换后的说法、错误选项迷惑性不强。文章选自《洛杉矶时报》等欧美主流网站,话题与我们日常生活还是比较接近、不难看懂。文字难度与近两年四级基本相近,但可以看出对考生的单词掌握和阅读长句的能力要求较高。不过若是之前系统准备近些年四级阅读的同学,对这次四级阅读考试的文章应不会感觉特别吃力。

  下面我们对这次四级考试的几篇典型的仔细阅读进行简单的解析,供大家参考和体会。

  Passage One

  Junk food is everywhere. We're eating way too much of it. Most of us know what we're doing and yet we do it anyway.

  So here's a suggestion offered by two researchers at the Rand Corporation: Why not take a lesson from alcohol control policies and apply them to where food is sold and how it's displayed?

  "Many policy measures to control obesity (肥胖症)assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods," note the two researchers.

  "In contrast," the researchers continue, "many regulations that don't assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance -- like food -- of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems."

  The research references studies of people's behavior with food and alcohol and results of alcohol restrictions, and then lists five regulations that the researchers think might be promising if applied to junk foods. Among them:

  Density restrictions: licenses to sell alcohol aren't handed out unplanned to all comers but are allotted (分配)based on the number of places in an area that already sell alcohol. These make alcohol less easy to get and reduce the number of psychological cues to drink.

  Similarly, the researchers say, being presented with junk food stimulates our desire to eat it. So why not limit the density of food outlets, particularly ones that sell food rich in empty calories? And why not limit sale of food in places that aren't primarily food stores?

  Display and sales restrictions: California has a rule prohibiting alcohol displays near the cash registers in gas stations, and in most places you can't buy alcohol at drive-through facilities. At supermarkets, food companies pay to have their wares in places where they're easily seen. One could remove junk food to the back of the store and ban them from the shelves at checkout lines. The other measures include restricting portion sizes, taxing and prohibiting special price deals for junk foods, and placing warning labels on the products.

  57. What does the author say about junk food?

  A) People should be educated not to eat too much.

  B) It is widely consumed despite its ill reputation.

  C) Its temptation is too strong for people to resist.

  D) It causes more harm than is generally realized.

  答案:B

  【解析】披着细节题皮的推理题:关于垃圾食品作者说了啥?关键词Junk food定位到第一段:Junk food is everywhere. We're eating way too much of it. Most of us know what we're doing and yet we do it anyway。垃圾食品满天飞,吃来吃去太长肥。虽知其害仍不舍,要肥大家一起肥。B的意思是垃圾食品名声虽恶还是被广泛消费,契合原文。另一条思路就是,yet和anyway体现的逻辑相反关系只有B能涵盖了。

  58. What do the Rand researchers think of many of the policy measures to control obesity?

  A) They should be implemented effectively.

  B) They provide misleading information.

  C) They are based on wrong assumptions.

  D) They help people make rational choices.

  答案:C

  【解析】推理题:关于肥胖控制的很多政策,Rand研究者怎么看?这篇文章最难的一题。由画线关键词定位至第三、四段(都有Rr的发言,表观点)。

  So here's a suggestion offered by two researchers at the Rand Corporation: Why not take a lesson from alcohol control policies and apply them to where food is sold and how it's displayed?" Many policy measures to control obesity (肥胖症)assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods 很多控制肥胖症的政策都是假设人们能够有意识且理性地选择吃什么、怎么吃……【这句话本身无用】" note the two researchers.

  "In contrast相反【逻辑线索出现】," the researchers continue, "many regulations that don't assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol 那些没有假设人们会作出理智选择的法规却成功控酒, a substance -- like food -- of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems."

  一个"相反"后的成功说明,很多控制肥胖症的政策失败,他们是要做出是负面评价。C的意思正巧是,控肥政策是基于错误假设。

  59. Why do policymakers of alcohol control place density restrictions?

  A) Few people are able to resist alcohol's temptations.

  B) There are already too many stores selling alcohol.

  C) Drinking strong alcohol can cause social problems.

  D) Easy access leads to customers' over-consumption.

  答案:D

  【解析】细节题:为何控酒政策制定者们要实行浓度限制?定位到第五段:

  Density restrictions: licenses to sell alcohol aren't handed out unplanned to all comers but are allotted (分配)based on the number of places in an area that already sell alcohol. These make alcohol less easy to get and reduce the number of psychological cues to drink. 浓度限购可使消费者买酒不易,并减少喝酒的心理暗示。

  换个角度,之所以这么做,就是因为之前"容易买到酒的途径导致了对酒的过度消费"。

  60. What is the purpose of California's rule about alcohol display in gas stations?

  A) To effectively limit the density of alcohol outlets.

  B) To help drivers to give up the habit of drinking.

  C) To prevent possible traffic jams in nearby areas.

  D) To get alcohol out of drivers' immediate sight.

  答案:D

  【解析】推理题:加州在汽油站管控酒的展示是出于何目的?定位到最后一段。三句原则做题:

  Display and sales restrictions: California has a rule prohibiting alcohol displays near the cash registers in gas stations, and in most places you can't buy alcohol at drive-through facilities.于是大部分地区你在驾车通过的设施里买不到酒啦 At supermarkets, food companies pay to have their wares in places where they're easily seen. One could remove junk food to the back of the store and ban them from the shelves at checkout lines. The other measures include restricting portion sizes, taxing and prohibiting special price deals for junk foods, and placing warning labels on the products.

  所以,正确答案为"把酒放在司机们的视线之外"。

  61. What is the general guideline the Rand researchers suggest about junk food control?

  A) Guiding people to make rational choices about food.

  B) Enhancing people's awareness of their own health.

  C) Borrowing ideas from alcohol control measures.

  D. Resorting to economic, legal and psychological means

  答案:C.

  【解析】从题干可发现,是道变形的主旨题:Rand研究者们对于垃圾食品管控的总体准则是什么?

  不管是找主旨句,还是当细节题做,都会发现关键词Rand researchers首次出现在第二段第一句: So here's a suggestion offered by two researchers at the Rand Corporation: Why not take a lesson from alcohol control policies and apply them to where food is sold and how it's displayed? Rand公司的研究人员建议:为啥不借鉴控酒政策并运用到食品展示和售卖区?--这就是全文主旨。

  所以,正确答案为"从控酒措施借鉴想法"。

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