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BEC商务英语中级备考阅读题及答案二十一

2013-07-13 来源:读书人 
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  1 the failure of a company to set its prices appropriately

  2 a context that makes it difficult to increase prices

  3 the consequences of companies trying to conceal their approach to pricing

  4 the means by which a company ensured precision in the prices it offered

  5 the fact that companies can learn about the effects of a price reduction

  6 the first sector to price products according to how much customers were prepared to spend

  7 the widespread use of rough guidelines to determine prices

  Getting the price right

  A、

  Chief executives need to pay more attention to pricing, according to Roberto Lippi of the Apex Group, a consultancy that offers advice on pricing strategy. He accepts that low inflation figures in many industrialised countries makes raising prices tough, but argues that this should not necessarily deter companies. He gives the example of the airlines, which, with their minimum stay requirements and massive premiums for flexibility, led the way in sorting customers into categories, based on their willingness to pay.

  B、

  The key to pricing is to avoid alienating customers. As Lippi points out, once a bad price has been established, it can be very difficult to turn the situation around. He gives the example of a consumer goods company that went bankrupt largely because it did not price its digital cameras properly. In contrast, he cites the case of a Swiss drug company that introduced software for every sales representative's laptop, enabling them to provide consistent and accurate price quotes. To help staff with this innovation, the company also created a new post of director of pricing strategy.

  C、

  Many of today's managers have the benefit of modern technology to help them with pricing. Supermarket chains, for example, can easily track customers' 'elasticity' - how their buying habits change in response to a price rise or a discount. But although a company can now measure this sort of thing in a more sophisticated way, following basic rules is still the most common way of setting prices. Most bosses still worry more about their costs than the prices they charge; one recent survey found that they spend as little as 2% of their time on pricing.

  D、

  One popular approach to pricing is illustrated by the car companies that charge extra for product add-ons such as electric windows, instead of offering them as part of the standard price. Although many customers are prepared to pay extra, Lippi recommends that companies make sure that price differences reflect real differences in the product, either in quality or in the extra service on offer. The worst approach is to try to keep the pricing structure secret from customers. Nowadays, that is more likely to lead to lost contracts than large profits.

  这篇文章主要是关于定价(pricing)的。题目算是阅读第一部分里比较隐晦的了。四个部分分别介绍了影响定价的一些因素。

  第一题,公司没有合理定价。答案是B段引用的一个例子:He gives the example of a consumer goods company that went bankrupt largely because it did not price its digital cameras properly.因为没有对数码相机合理定价,所以一个消费品公司破产了。和第一题吻合。

  Consumer goods: goods such as food, clothing, etc. bought and used by individual customers消费品。

  第二题,大环境使得涨价很困难。答案是A段,有点不太明显,甚至可能需要点经济学基础:He accepts that low inflation figures in many industrialised countries makes raising prices tough, but argues that this should not necessarily deter companies。很多工业国家的低通货膨胀率使得涨价变得困难。通货膨胀率是衡量一国宏观经济的重要指标,也就是这题所说的context。低通货膨胀率,说明经济不太景气,涨价会很困难。

  deter: to make sb decide not to do sth or continue doing sth阻碍

  eg: The price did not deter most customers

  第三题,公司隐瞒定价策略的后果。答案是D段的最后一句:The worst approach is to try to keep the pricing structure secret from customers. Nowadays, that is more likely to lead to lost contracts than large profits.最坏的方法是试图让定价结构对消费者保密。今天,它更有可能导致失去合同而不是大的利润。

  第四题,一个公司确保定价准确的方式。答案是B段的这么一句:a Swiss drug company that introduced software for every sales representative's laptop, enabling them to provide consistent and accurate price quotes。一个瑞士的医药公司为每一位销售代表的手提电脑引进了软件,确保他们提供持续准确的定价。这里的accurate对应于precision,引进的软件就是方式(means)。

  第五题,公司了解降价的后果。答案在C段,但是不那么明显:Supermarket chains, for example, can easily track customers' 'elasticity' - how their buying habits change in response to a price rise or a discount.大的超市可以轻易追踪客户的弹性—他们的购买习惯是如何对涨价或打折做出反应的。这个题需要理解一个常见的经济学术语:弹性。

  elasticity :the extent to which people want to buy more or less of a product or service when its price changes。

  这个术语的概念基本吻合第五题所说的。能够了解客户的需求弹性,也就了解了涨价或者降价的效果。

  第六题,对产品定价首要的是根据客户所愿意支付的。答案是A的最后一句:based on their willingness to pay.。集于他们的支付意愿。这里的based on对应于the first sector。

  第七题,粗糙的定价准则的广泛应用。答案在C段,有点隐晦:But although a company can now measure this sort of thing in a more sophisticated way, following basic rules is still the most common way of setting prices.虽然公司可以用一种更复杂的方式来衡量,遵守基本的规则仍然是定价的最普遍的方式。BUT是个信号。rough可以从反面对应于sophisticated,,the most common way对应于widespread use

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