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2014-01-03 来源:读书人 

  Passage 1


  You are going to read a list of headings and a about a park naturalist. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A—F for each numbered paragraph (41—45). The first and last paragraphs of the are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET l. (10 points)

  [A]Becoming a naturalist

  [B]Seeing wonder in the ordinary

  [C]A changing role

  [D]Disgusting and embarrassing moments

  [E]What does a park naturalist do?

  [F]What does it take to be a park naturalist?

  I have the best job in the Wisconsin State Park System. As a park naturalist at Peninsula State Park, I am busy writing reports, creating brochures about trees or flowers, and sometimes visiting schools.And, of course, I make sure Peninsula’s feathered friends are well fed.

  41. _____________

  As a park naturalist I am a writer, a teacher, a historian and, if not a social worker, at least a mentor to young people interested in the environment. I love the diversity of my job. Every day is different. Most tasks require creativity. Now that I am an experienced naturalist, I have the freedom to plan my own day and make decisions about the types of programs that we offer at Peninsula.

  42. _____________

  In my first naturalist job, I spent four out of five days leading school field trips and visiting classrooms. As a state park naturalist I still work with students, but more often lead programs like bird walks, nature crafts, outdoor skills, and trail hikes. I also find myself increasingly involved in management decisions. For example, sometimes the park naturalist is the person who knows where rare orchids grow or where ravens nest. When decisions are made about cutting trees, building trails, or creating more campsites. naturalists are asked to give the “ecological perspective.”

  43. _____________

  Perhaps the grossest thing I’ve done as a naturalist is to boil animal skulls. Visitors like seeing bones and skins—at least after they have been cleaned up! Once, our nature center needed more skulls. A trapper gave me muskrat, raccoon and fox skulls but I had to clean them. First, I boiled the skin and meat off. Boy, did that stink! Then I used dissecting tools and old toothbrushes to clean out the eyeballs. Finally, I soaked the skulls in a bleach solution. I’ve had some embarrassing experiences, too. On my first hike as Peninsula’s new naturalist, I was so excited that I identified a white pine tree as a red pine tree! That’s quite a mistake since the trees are so easy to tell apart. White pine needles are in bundles of five and red pine needles are in bundles of two.

  44. _____________

  Not all state parks are as busy or as big as Peninsula. Not all park naturalists spend the seasons as I do. Nevertheless, park naturalists share certain common interests and responsibilities: A park naturalist might notice that branches of a red maple growing in a field reach out to the side while those of a red maple in a thick forest reach up, and wonder why the trees look different. A naturalist makes things happen. It might be working with workers to clean up part of a river. Park naturalists share knowledge in different ways, but all of them communicate with people. A love of learning--from other people, from plants and animals, from books, and more—is an essential quality. Most naturalists don’t work in places of rare beauty. Many work in city parks or in places that show “wear and tear.” If you can wonder about an inchworm, a juniper bush, or a robin and cause others to wonder, too, then you are ready to become a park naturalist.

  45. _____________

  If you think you want to become a park naturalist, do the following:

  Explore your home landscape. Knowing how people have shaped the land where you live-and how the land has shaped them-will lend a comparison that will serve you well.

  Start a field sketch book.Sketch what you see, where and when. The reason is not to practice art skills (though you may discover you have a talent) but, rather, to practice observation skills.

  Go to college. You will need a 4-year degree. There are several academic routes that lead to the naturalist’s road. I have found ornithology, plant taxonomy and human growth and development to be among my most helpful courses.

  Listen and learn. A college degree is like a ticket. It lets you board the plane but is only the beginning of the journey. Look and listen to those who have already traveled the road for ideas, knowledge and inspiration.

  Passage 2

  Directions: Reading the following and answer questions by finding a subtitle for each of the marked parts or paragraphs. There are two extra items in the subtitle. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET . (10 points)

  A. The consequence of losing bones

  B. A better lab than on earth

  C. Two different cases

  D. Multiple effects form weightlessness

  E. How to overcome weightlessness

  F. Factors that are not so sure

  During weightlessness, the forces within the body undergo dramatic change. Because the spine is no longer compressed, people grow taller. The lungs, heart and other organs within the chest have no weight, and as a result, the rib cage and chest relax and expand. Similarly, the weights of the liver, kidneys, stomach and bowels disappear. One astronaut said after his flight: “You feel your guts floating up. I found myself tightening my belly, sort of pushing things back。”


  Meanwhile muscles and bones come to be used in different ways. Our muscles are designed to support us when stand or sit upright and to move body parts. But in space, muscles used for support on the ground are no longer needed for that purpose; moreover, the muscles used for movement around a capsule differ from those used for walking down a hall. Consequently, some muscles rapidly weaken. This doesn’t present a problem to space travelers as long as they perform only light work. But preventing the loss of muscle tissue required for heavy work during space walks and preserving muscle for safe return to Earth are the subject of many current experiments。

  Studies have shown that astronauts lose bone mass from the lower spine, hips and upper leg at a rate of about 1 percent per month for the entire duration of their time in space. Some sites, such as the heel, lose calcium faster than others. Studies of animals taken into space suggest that bone formation also declines。


  Needless to say, these data are indeed cause for concern. During space flight, the loss of bone elevates calcium levels in the body, potentially causing kidney stones and calcium crystals to form in other tissues. Back on the ground, the loss of bone calcium stops within one month, but scientists do not yet know whether the bone recovers completely: too few people have flown in space for long periods. Some bone loss may be permanent, in which case ex-astronauts will always be more prone to broken bones。


  These questions mirror those in our understanding of how the body works here on Earth. For example, elderly women are prone to a loss of bone mass. Scientists understand that many different factors can be involved in this loss, but they do not yet know how the factors act and interact; this makes it difficult to develop an appropriate treatment. So it is with bone loss in space, where the right prescription still awaits discovery。


  Many other body systems are affected directly and indirectly. One example is the lung. Scientists have studied the lung in space and learned much they could not have learned in laboratories on earth. On the ground the top and bottom parts of the lung have different patterns of air flow and blood flow. But are these patterns the result only of gravity, or also of the nature of the lung itself? Only recently have studies in space provided clear evidence for the latter. Even in the absence of gravity, different parts of the lung have different levels of air flow and blood flow。


  Not everything that affects the body during space flight is related solely to weightlessness. Also affected, for example, are the immune system and the multiple systems responsible for the amount and quality of sleep(light levels and work schedules disrupt the body’s normal rhythms). Looking out the spacecraft window just before going to sleep(an action difficult to resist, considering the view) can let enough bright light into the eye to trigger just the wrong brain response, leading to poor sleep. As time goes on, the sleep debt accumulates。

  For long space voyages, travelers must also face being confined in a tight volume, unable to escape, isolated from the normal life of Earth, living with a small, fixed group of companions who often come from different cultures. These challenges can lead to anxiety, depression, crew tension and other social issues, which affect astronauts just as much as weightlessness—perhaps even more. Because these factors operate at the same time the body is adapting to other environmental changes, it may not be clear which physiological changes result from which factors. Much work remains to be done.

  Passage 3

  Directions: you are going to read a list of headings and a about what personal qualities a teacher should have. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  A) It’s the teacher’s obligation to be upright.

  B) Good characteristics are important.

  C) Teachers should show endurance.

  D) Teachers can make quick adjustment.

  E) Teachers should never stop learning.

  F) Teachers should identify with students.

  G) Teachers’ duties are given by government.

  Here I want to try to give you an answer to the question: What personal qualities are desirable in a teacher? Probably mp two people would draw up exactly similar lists, but I think the following would be generally accepted.


  First, the teacher’s personality should be pleasantly live and attractive. This does not rule out people who are physically plain, or even ugly, because many such have great personal charm. But it does rule out such type as the over-excitable, melancholy, frigid, sarcastic, cynical, frustrated, and over-bearing: I would say too, that it excludes all of dull or purely negative personality. I still stick to what I said in my earlier book: “that school children probably suffer more from ‘bores than from brutes’”.


  Secondly, it is not merely desirable but essential for a teacher to have genuine capacity for sympathy---in the literal meaning of that word: a capacity to tune into the minds and feelings of other people, especially, since most teachers are school teachers, to the minds and feelings of children. Closely related with this is the capacity to be tolerant--- not, indeed, of what is wrong, but of the frailty and immaturity of human nature which induce people and again especially children, to make mistakes.


  Thirdly, I hold it essential for a teacher to be both intellectually and morally honest. This does not mean being a plaster saint. It means that he will be aware of his intellectual strengths and limitations, and will have thought about and decided upon the moral principles by which his life shall be guided. There is no contradiction in my going on to say that a teacher should be a bit of an actor. That is part of the technique of teaching, which demands that every now and then a teacher should be able to put on an act--- to enliven a lesson, correct a fault, or award praise. Children, especially young children, live in a world that is rather larger than life.

  44 .______________

  A teacher must remain mentally alert. He will not get into the profession if of low intelligence, but it is all too easy, even for people of above- average intelligence, to stagnate intellectually ---and that means to deteriorate intellectually. A teacher must be quick to adapt himself to any situation, however improbable and able to improvise, if necessary at less than a moment’s notice.


  On the other hand, a teacher must be capable of infinite patience. This, I ust say, is largely a matter of self-discipline and self-training; we are none of us born like that. He must be pretty resilient; teaching makes great demands on nervous energy. And should be able to take in his stride the innumerable pretty irritations any adult dealing with children has to endure.

  Finally, I think a teacher should have the kind of mind which always wants to go on learning. Teaching is a job at which one will never be perfect; there is always something more to learn about it. There are three principal objects of study: the subject, or subjects, which the teacher is teaching; the method by which they can best be taught to the particular pupils in the classes he is teaching; and ---by far the most important---the children, young people, or adults to whom they are to be taught. The two cardinal principles of British education today are that education is education of the whole person, and that it is best acquired through full and active co-operation between two persons, the teacher and the learner.

  Passage 4

  Directions:You are going to read a list of headings and a about teaching a second language. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45).The first and last paragraphs of the are not numbered. There are two extra headings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET l. (10 points)

  A) Asking for parental involvement

  B) Setting up small groups

  C) Making classroom events predictable

  D) Extending the patterns of classroom communications

  E) Supporting students’ use of language for second language acquisition

  F) Encouraging students to use models

  G) Allowing variability in the patterns of classroom communications

  How to Teach a Second Language

  It should be evident that the way in which the patterns of communication are established and maintained in second language classroom is not random. Teachers, by virtue of the status they hold and the ways they use language, have the authority to retain control over both the content and structure of classroom communication. At times, teachers tightly control the topic of discussion, what counts as relevant to that topic, who may participate and when. At other times, teachers grant a varying degree of control to their students by allowing them to select when and how they will participate. Thus, the patterns of classroom communication depend largely on how teachers use language to control the structure and content of classroom events.


  To promote the patterns of communication I second language classrooms, teachers must establish an atmosphere in and outside the classroom that is encouraging, supporting and accepting of any and all student contributions. This means accepting student contributions not as right or wrong answers but as an indication of where students are, what students understand and how they have made sense of what they are learning. For example, second language students spend much less time in school than outside school. Therefore, what they learn at home and in their primary social communities greatly influence how they learn, talk, act and interact. If teachers wish to promote communications in second language classrooms, they must make efforts to learn about the home culture and social communities of their second language students by working closely with parents and community members.


  As for second language classroom communication, when students know exactly what is expected of them and have plenty of opportunities to prepare, they are more willing and able to participate in classroom events. To do so, teachers can provide students with models to demonstrate exactly what they are expected to do within the con of full performance.


  Nevertheless, teachers need to adjust their instructional practices to adapt to their students’ communicative behavior. This means teachers need to bring into classrooms students’ own frames of reference, particularly their cultural beliefs, assumptions and expectations about who they are and what role they should play.


  Teachers need to find out the most effective form and way to deliver language to students and help their learning. It is proposed that small group activities are more conducive for learning since they tend to distance teachers’ control over the patterns of communication. In addition, small group activities enable students to take a more active role in what they are learning, as well as have more opportunities to contribute to and help formulate the information that is generated and learned.


  Students are challenged to use language that is beyond their current proficiency level, and their attempts to do so should be supported by teachers. In this way, students have opportunities to participate in a range of language functions and use language in both planned and unplanned discourse. Consequently, students will gradually develop their own ability to master a second language.

  This chapter has examined a range of issues that teachers must consider if they wish to promote more effective language learning of their second language students: they must be willing to look and listen to their students, to see what they are capable of, to alter, to adjust and extend what they do, so as to maximize their students’ competencies and performance.

  Passage 5

  Directions:You are going to read a list of headings and a about business school and MBA(Master of business Administration) education. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45).The first and last paragraphs of the are not numbered. There are two extra headings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET l. (10 points)

  A)MBA program boom in South Africa

  B)Current assessment of MBA programs

  C)Views on the rankings of MBA programs

  D)Abundance of MBA programs worldwide

  E)Rankings are misleading

  F)Variation in MBA courses

  G)Prominence as a factor in assessment

  Choosing an MBA program

  Business school enrollment has jumped in the past few years as increasing numbers of students seek careers in the world. The rising demand has encouraged intense competition and growth among business programs.


  Students find deciding on an MBA program to be a daunting task. This is in part due to the proliferation of options. There are now more than 1,000MBA programs in the United States, 700 in Europe---including over 300 in Britain--- and some 525 in the rest of the world, with the greatest concentration in the Asia-Pacific region. The boom has recently hit South Africa as well, where ten years ago, the nation offered half a dozen programs. Now more than 40 are provided, most by foreign business schools. In some respects, the schools differ little--- 75percent of them are general management programs. But the options remain, with full-time programs accounting for only 42 percent of the total, the rest being part-time, modular and distance learning.


  Some full-time programs are delivered through evening-only lectures, and some modular programs are full-time because of so much project work. More than 90 percent of the programs are in English, the others being offered in 23 languages with Spanish the most common. Many programs---especially the executive ones---require years of experience before admission. Yet “executive” can also define a part-time, accelerated program. The potential student---prepared to spend around﹩15,000 per year--- faces a bewildering array of products, often described in inconsistent terminology but with no essential difference in instruction.


  Business schools, with a few notable exceptions, have not clearly explained their assessment comparison criteria. They argue that an MBA is an MBA, differing only in the name and cost of the issuing school. In order to help the layman, newspapers have often stepped in to shed light on this confusion, judging schools and programs, and providing rankings.


  Applicants prefer rankings, but the school for them most part do not. European schools, in particular, argue that rankings are misleading as they may use a narrow range of often-inappropriate measures which fail to reveal the true competence of unique programs. Several schools have contested and boycotted league tables. Nevertheless, the number of business schools which participate in rankings is actually growing, in part because rankings tell potential customers what they need to know. Since business schools must market to applicants as if they were consumers, most take rankings seriously.


  A ranking is just one factor that underpins the success of schools and MBA programs. The programs must not only rank highly, they must also be known. Schools want their programs---and graduates want their degrees ---to receive instant recognition and respect. Until recently, prominence has been largely overlooked in the assessment of MBA programs, but the Internet now provides another channel of communication and reputation for schools and their market.

  The MBA is the principal product in the most market-oriented sector of higher education. Given the globalization of business, increased communication, and the ability to deliver content to individuals wherever they are, the complexity and competitiveness of this pioneering educational marketplace can only increase.

  Passage 6

  Directions:You are going to read a list of headings and a about U.S. firms participating global competition. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45).The first and last paragraphs of the are not numbered. There are two extra headings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET l. (10 points)

  A)Entering international markets

  B)Satisfying global customers

  C)Lowering prices by manufacturing overseas

  D)Facing threats of global markets

  E)Recognizing the constraints of global markets

  F)Being better than competition

  G)Coordinating marketing activities

  We live in an increasingly interdependent world, and perhaps someday we will live in a “world without borders”, to borrow from the title of a provocative book of 1970s. Globalization is of great significance to both poor and rich nations, since competition now spans beyond borders.


  “The world is too much with us,” said Wordsworth. That could be the main complaint of many U.S. businesses that see themselves threatened by increases in imported goods. Imports were only 1 percent of the U.S. gross national products (GNP) in 1954; they were 6 percent of GNP in 1964 and 10 percent in 1984. The interdependence suggested by such terms as global village and world economy is being recognized by business managers. Therefore, many more U.S. firms, whether they like it or not, will be forced to become part of world markets and global competition. Meanwhile, other nations such as Japan and Germany have had open economies for some time. Their firms are more accustomed to selling in international markets. Hence, U.S. firms have some catching up to do to compete effectively and gain market share in world markets.


  To compete in world markets, firms must have an in depth understanding of customers’ needs. If customers needs differ dramatically across countries and regions, a company must consider how to adapt its products and various elements of the marketing mix to customer needs. If prices must be lowered, the company needs to consider how to design a product to lower manufacturing costs and decide whether to manufacture the product at home or overseas to achieve lower cost. A well-articulated distribution and logistics system is needed to make goods and services available at the point of sale in sufficient quantities. Firms also need to develop global customer database and information systems to understand and respond to customer needs and purchasing decisions.


  Firms must contend with both domestic and global competition. Global competitors could include large multinational and state-owned enterprises that might be market share oriented rather than profit oriented as well as small local firms with other goals. Long-term success comes in part from monitoring, assessing and responding to actions by all sorts of competitors, especially through understanding the competitive and comparative advantages enjoyed by competitors, and finally ensuring success by offering more value, developing superior brand image and product positioning, broader product range, lower prices, higher quality and superior distribution services to more effectively meet customers’ need.


  International marketing creates a new level of complexity. In order to face this challenge, firms must consider staffing and allocating responsibilities across marketing units in different countries, and deciding which decision to decentralize or to control from headquarters, whether to develop standardized campaigns and plans, and how much local responsiveness is appropriate.


  As firms attempt to market in the international arena, they not only face challenges from different competitors, but need to cope with cultural and economic differences that exist in the marketing infrastructure, such as the financial regulations imposed b local governments, and the impact of government policies, especially protectionist and other policies that may unfairly benefit competitors and create difficulty in market entry. To level the playing field, a firm may decide to begin manufacturing overseas to lower its costs and match the lower prices of strong international competition. Very often, a firm may not find it feasible to go alone into foreign markets. In this case, its international marketing endeavor becomes more complex as it joins with a local partner that has specialized knowledge of a specific market and its customers. Some firms find that local partners can force them to change the way they do business. A local partner may insist that the firm accept payment in kind: orange juice or wine in return for machinery, which means a firm has to peddle orange juice or wine around the world.

  Although the global market is attractive, U.S. firms have been slow to take advantage of it. The United States has always been one of the world’s largest markets. However, ignoring foreign markets and foreign competition has two dangers for U.S. companies: losing market share at home and not profiting from higher growth in markets overseas.









(作者:读书人网友 编辑:kind887)