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2014年中考英语——语法要点之从句

2014-01-03 来源:读书人 

  1.宾语从句:怎样判断出一个从句是宾语从句?1 在动词后作宾语(动宾):

  Do you know where he comes from? 划线部分是动词know的宾语。

  2.在有些接双宾结构的动词后作宾语:

  He asked me when we would leave. 此句中me与从句when-分别是ask的宾语。

  3在介词后作宾语(介宾):Let’s talk about how we solve this problem。

  4在I’m sorry…, I’m afraid…, I’m sure…等结构后的句子也被认为是宾语从句。

  宾语从句需注意的时态问题:

  1主句若是一般现在时,从句根据不同情况用不同时态。

  He says (that) he will have a walk soon. (soon指将来,从句用将来时)

  The teacher asks who is the cleverest in the school. (暗指目前谁最聪明,从句用现在时)

  I want to know who came here late this morning. (今早已过去,从句用过去时)

  2主句若是一般过去时,从句也要用过去时。

  He wondered if I would come. She told me that her son had got well。

  She said that she liked watching TV. We thought Jim was wrong。

  3无论主句是何时态,从句若表客观真理,要用一般现在时。

  Mr. Li said the moon is smaller than the earth。

  4宾语从句无论有何引导词,句子都要用陈述句语序。

  Could you tell me when you will get back to Wuhan?(不是will you)

  Do you know which sweater she is wearing? (不是is she)

  2.状语从句:此处所说的状语从句用法仅包括条件(if和unless引导)状语从句和时间(when等引导,见下文)状语从句。状语从句需注意以下问题:

  1主句若是一般将来时、祈使句或含不表过去的情态动词等,则if(如果), unless(除非),when(当…的时候), as soon as(一…就…),before, after, until, till, as(当…的时候)所引导的状语从句用一般现在时。

  You may take a rest when you finish doing your work. (主句有情态动词)

  Could you look after my son after I leave home?

  (情态动词could是为了让语气委婉,并不指过去时,从句仍用一般现在时)

  I will go out as soon as it stops raining this afternoon. (主句是将来时)

  Wait for your brother at the bus station until he arrives. (主句是祈使句)

  2而主句若是一般过去时,从句也要用表过去时的适当时态,如:

  I would give the money to the charity if I had a million dollars。

  When he got to the park, his classmates had left。

  My son ran towards me as soon as he saw me on the street。

  3.定语从句:定语从句是指修饰前面名词或代词的句子。从句前面的名词或代词叫先行词,从句中的引导词叫关系代词或关系副词。关系代词who只指人,which只指物。that既可指人又可指物。whose 后必须跟有名词,既指人,也可指物。关系词作主语时,不可省略,作宾语时可省略。whom只指人,只作宾语。关系副词where指“在那里”,when指“在那时”。 (以下所给例子凡斜体字部分均作定语从句。)

  She is a girl who / that is beautiful and kind-hearted. The girl who / that is tall is my sister。

  (以上关系词作主语,不可省略。)

  She is a girl (who / whom / that) I know very well. (关系词做know的宾语,可以省略。)

  That boy whose hair is very long is my brother. I own a bike whose price is high。

  (关系词whose表所属,后需接名词。前句指人,译为“这个孩子的”;后句指物,译为“这个自行车的”。)

  I bought a watch (which / that) I paid 100 yuan for. (指物, 作pay的宾语,可以省略。)

  I prefer a place which / that is clean and quiet. (关系词译为“这个地方”,主语,不可省)

  I prefer a place where I can live a quiet life. (关系词译为“在这个地方”,是地点副词。)

  I shall never forget the day when a boy helped me find my dog. (“在这一天”,是时间副词)

  4.wish和hope:1wish既可接to do sth. 也可接sb + to do sth. 也可接that从句。

  I wish to spend my summer holiday in Qingdao. I wish you to join my party this Sunday。

  I wish (that) I could be a scientist. (注:接that从句时,从句用虚拟语气。)

  2hope接to do sth. 或that从句. 但不接sb to do sth。

  I hope to receive a letter from you some day. I hope you will get well soon。

  I hope (that) everything goes well. (接从句时不用虚拟)

  5.thanks for和thanks to: Thanks for your helping me with the work。

  (此句表达对对方为自己做了某事的感谢,后无补充的结果。)

  Thanks to your suggestion, I didn’t make such mistakes。

  (此句表达感谢由于某方所做的有利的事,出现了后面的结果。)

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