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2014年中考英语——语法要点之动词

2014-01-03 来源:读书人 

  1.感官动词用法之一:see, hear, listen to, watch, notice等词,后接宾语,再接动词原形或ing形式。前者表全过程,后者表正在进行。句中有频率词时,以上的词也常跟动词原形。

  I heard someone knocking at the door when I fell asleep. (我入睡时有人正敲门)

  I heard someone knock at the door three times. (听的是全过程)

  I often watch my classmates play volleyball after school. (此处有频率词often)

  若以上词用于被动语态,后面原有动词原形改为带to不定式:

  We saw him go into the restaurant. → He was seen to go into the restaurant。

  I hear the boy cry every day. → The boy is heard to cry every day。

  2.感官动词用法之二:look, sound, smell, taste, feel可当系动词,后接形容词。

  He looks angry. It sounds good. The flowers smell beautiful. The sweets taste sweet. The silk feels soft. I felt tired. They all looked tired。

  这些动词都不用于被动语态。如:The sweets are tasted sweet。是错误的。

  注意:如果加介词like, 则后不可接形容词,而接名词或代词:

  He looks like his mother. That sounds like a good idea. It sounds like great fun。

  It smells like a flower. It tastes like salt。

  3.find和think部分用法: find / think + 宾语 + 宾语补足语。(代替宾从)

  宾补有以下情况:

  1.名词短语 John found his son a clever boy。

  2.形容词短语 Mrs. Smith thinks her husband kind of lazy。

  3.有时宾补后可接带to不定式 I found it hard to fool the girl。

  4find后也有v-ing形式作宾语补足语。I found him reading a book just now。

  4.would like / want / feel like: 1would like,和want类似:

  ◇都可接名词短语:I would like / want another three desks。

  ◇都可接带to 不定式:I would like / want to go out for a walk。

  ◇都可接sb,然后再跟带to 不定式: I would like you to give me a hand。

  2feel like: ◇后也可接名词短语:Do you feel like some tea?

  ◇后若接动词,须用动词ing形式:Do you feel like having a walk?

  I don’t feel like drinking tea. 【注:feel like常用于疑问句或否定句中。】

  5.词序易错的短语:1形容词修饰不定代词或不定副词,形容词在后面。

  Is there anything delicious in the fridge? Nothing serious。

  There is something wrong with the computer. I want to go somewhere warm。

  2else修饰疑问词和不定代词、不定副词,也放在后面。

  What else can you see in the picture? Who else is in the room?

  Do you have anything else to say? Where else can you see it?

  —3—

  3enough修饰形容词和副词,enough 放在后面。

  This sweater is cheap enough. Nemo is old enough to work。

  He ran fast enough to catch up with the dog. She doesn’t listen carefully enough。

  6.对“评价”、“天气”的提问之区别:1What do you think of …?=

  How do you like …? =How / What do you feel about…?

  “你对…怎么看?”(How…?句中有like,是动词。)

  2What’s the weather like in…? = How is the weather in…?“…的天气什么样?”

  (What…?句中有like,是介词,“像”。而How…?句中无like。)

  7.take, cost, pay, spend区别:

  1It + take + sb + some time + to do sth: It took us half an hour to cut down the tree。

  2物 + cost + sb + 钱: The bag cost me thirty yuan。

  若cost后无sb, 则译作“价钱是”: The bag costs 30 Yuan。

  3人+ pay + sb + 钱 + for sth: I paid the seller 200 Yuan for the bike。。

  (pay后所加内容可视具体情况取舍。切记for后接的是物,而不是人或钱。)

  4人 + spend + 时间/ 钱 + on sth / (in) doing sth。

  The girl spent two hours (in) searching the Internet。

  The girl always spends much money on her clothes。

  spend 有时可指“度过”:spend holiday / weekends / winter

  8.双宾结构:pass / give / teach / offer / lend / send / sell / call / show / buy / ask / tell 等可加双宾结构。也就是接sb + sth. Pass me the book, please. He gave us some pens。

  其中pass, give, offer, lend, send, sell, show等也可接sth + to sb. 如: lend the book to me。

  buy, build等可接sth + for sb. My brother bought a dictionary for me。

  另外,若sth是代词时,不用双宾结构。Please show it to me. 而不说show me it。

  9.部分词作连词与介词:(连词接句子,介词接名词或代词)

  Keep careful when you are listening to the teacher. (斜体部分是句子,when是连词)

  Keep careful when listening to the teacher. (斜体部分是名词短语,when是介词)

  类似的,while, than, before, after, as, since, until等。

  如:I’ll wait until I hear from her. (连词) I’ll wait until hearing from her. (介词)

  I’ll wait until next Friday / September / 11:00. (接的都是表时间的短语,until是介词)

  10.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之一: 1. 动词ed作形容词:表示被动或已发生,常作定语。The boy named Peter is my friend. 那个叫做彼得的男孩是我的朋友。

  此处是后置定语,划线部分起修饰作用,下同。

  He’s eating fried chicken. “他在吃炸鸡。”做chicken的前置定语。

  There is no time left. “没时间剩余了。”做time的后置定语。

  I have read a novel written by Lu Xun。我读了一部鲁迅写的小说。做后置定语。下同。

  He lives in a house built twenty years ago. 他住在一个二十年前被建造的房子里。

  一般来说,定语部分不只一个词时, 常放在名词的后面。

  2动词ing作形容词:表示正在进行或表示功能,常作定语。

  the crying boy, a running bus, the rising sun, a bus running on the road,

  the boy crying in the corner (以上表示正在进行)

  a sitting room, the bathing suit, a cutting machine, writing paper…… (本行表示功能)

  11.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之二: 由一些及物动词派生而来,和心理感受有关,但ed修饰人,ing常修饰物。 以下词凡是译为“使…”的及物动词,其ed形式的形容词都译为“感到…的”,其ing形式的形容词都译为“令人(感到)…的”。以下带-ed形式的词的各个短语一般都译为“对…感到…”。

  exciting

  surprising

  amazing

  embarrassing

  encouraging

  frustrating

  interesting

  thrilling

  terrifying

  pleasing, = pleasant

  satisfying

  frightening

  tiring

  boring

  relaxing

  fascinating

  annoying

  moving

  worrying

  confusing

  excited (be ~d about)

  surprised (be ~d at)

  amazed (be ~d at)

  embarrassed(be ~ed in)

  encouraged(be ~ed at / by)

  frustrated (be ~d of)

  interested (be ~ed in)

  thrilled (be ~ed at)

  terrified (be terrified at/ of / with)

  pleased (be ~d with)

  satisfied(be satisfied with)

  frightened (be ~ed at / of )

  tired (be ~d of)

  bored (be ~d with)

  relaxed (无固定搭配)

  fascinated (be ~d by)

  annoyed (be ~ed with)

  moved (be ~d by)

  worried (be worried about)

  confused (be confused about)

  及物动词, 后接人 ed形式及常见短语 ing形式

  excite(使兴奋,使激动)

  surprise(使惊讶,使吃惊)

  amaze(使吃惊)

  embarrass(使尴尬)

  encourage(使受鼓舞, 鼓励)

  frustrate(使失望,使沮丧)

  interest(使感兴趣)

  thrill(使激动/ 紧张)

  terrify(使恐怖,使害怕)

  please (使高兴,使满意)

  satisfy (使满意)

  frighten (使害怕,使惊惧)

  tire(使厌烦)

  bore(使厌烦)

  relax(使放松)

  fascinate(使着迷)

  annoy(使烦恼)

  move(使感动)

  worry(使担忧)

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