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2014年中考英语——计量表达法

2014-01-03 来源:读书人 

  1.延续性动词:how long,since,for,until / till等所在肯定句中的主句谓语要用延续性动词(以下划线部分): We have been in Zhengzhou for ten years。

  How long may I keep this novel? I’ve lived here since 2002.

  Let’s wait until he comes back.. 但否定句中可用短暂性动词,如下面的see与leave:

  I haven’t seen you for a long time. They won’t leave until it stops raining。

  另外,请观察以下短暂性动词转换成延续性动词的常见表达:

  lose →be lost. start / begin to do→do go off→be off

  start, begin→be on turn on→be on move to→live in

  end→be over get, buy→have, own borrow→keep

  die→be dead go out→be out fall asleep→be asleep

  get / become + adj →be + adj. open(动词,“打开”) →be open(形容词,表状态)

  arrive in, get to, reach→be in, stay in leave, go away (from)→be away (from)

  如以下例子的划线部分(并注意黑体部分的变化):

  The dog died five hours ago. →The dog has been dead for five hours。

  I lost my dictionary two weeks ago. →My dictionary has been lost since two weeks ago。

  He began to teach English last year. →.He has taught English for one year。

  Lucy arrived in Beijing the day before yesterday. →Lucy has been in Beijing for two days。

  I bought this bike six months ago. →I have owned this book since six months ago。

  My friend borrowed the book last month. →My friend has kept the book for a month。

  He left Beijing in 1990. →He has been away from Beijing since 1990.

  (注意以上的“for + 时间段”与“since + 时间段 + ago”或“since + 时间点”可互换)

  2.all / each / both / none / either / neither不定代词或形容词的用法:

  1All boys / All of the boys are from China. (all 若接可数复数, 谓语也用复数。)

  All of the water is polluted. (若接不可数,谓语用单数。)

  2Each boy / Each of the boys has a different bag。

  each接名词单数或接of + 限定词+复数,其后谓语都用单数。

  3Both of the twins are clever. 后面谓语用复数。

  4None of the students has / have been there before。

  none +of +限定词+复数, 谓语用单、复数都可。另见88.

  5-When shall we meet, Saturday or Sunday?

  -Either day is OK. / Either of the days is OK. 谓语用单数。

  6-When shall we meet, Saturday or Sunday?

  -Sorry, I have to look after my mother these two days. That is, neither time is OK. / neither of the days is OK. 谓语用单数。

  【 all / each / none分别指三者或更多中的“都” / “每一个”/“没有一个”。

  both / either / neither分别指两者中“都”/“任何一个”/“没有一个” 】

  3.计量表达法:数量+单位+形容词。 The street is two kilometers long。

  That boy can jump four meters away。(此处不用far, 见49) The fish is five kilos heavy。

  The street is forty meters wide. This baby is only six months old。

  若计量表达的后面跟有名词,则要用连字符,单位不用复数。

  They dug an eight-meter-deep hole. /. I bought a 10-kilo-heavy fish。

  It’s a piece of 2-meter-thick ice. / They built a 50-meter-wide street。

  It’s a two-month holiday. She is a three-child mother. (最后两句计量中省略了形容词)

  4. Must I / May I / Need I …? 用法:1Must I …? “我必须…吗?”

  A: Must I finish the work? B: Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t。

  2 Need I…? “我有必要…吗?”或“我需要…吗?”

  A: Need I clean the house? B: Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t。

  3 May I …? “我可以…吗?”表示请求。

  A: May I go out for a walk now? B: Yes, you can. / No, you mustn’t / can’t。

  5.hundred / thousand / million / billion: 前有具体数字,这些词不加s及of. 如:

  nine hundred people, ten thousand students等。

  这些词前若无具体数字,后加s和of. 如:

  thousands of trees; many millions of people; hundreds of cars; billions of stars

  但前若有several, 后常不加s和of:several million pounds

  6.反意疑问句 (此处用QT表示反意疑问句后一部分内容) 的部分用法:

  1something, nothing, anything, everything作主语,QT主语用it。

  Something is wrong, isn’t it? / Nothing is difficult, is it?

  2当主句中think的主语是第一人称时,QT要结合think后的从句而定:

  I think Lucy can do well in the exam, can’t she?

  I don’t think he will come here on time, will he?

  3祈使句的QT一般用will you?(包括let us …。。), 而Let’s …用shall we?

  Get up now, will you? Don’t be noisy, will you? Be quiet, will you?

  Please don’t talk, will you? Let us do it now, will you? Don’t talk in class, will you?

  Let’s do it now, shall we? Let’s sing a song, shall we?

  4There be句型,QT主语用there。

  There is a man working in the field, isn’t there?

  There used to be a meeting on Friday, didn’t there?

  There won’t be a movie in the theatre, will there?

  7.put on, wear, dress, in: 1put on,“穿上”后接物。表行为,是短暂动词。

  You should put on your coat when you leave。

  2wear,“穿,穿着”后接物,表状态,是延续性动词。

  He always wears the yellow sweater in winter. I like wearing beautiful clothes。

  3dress, “给…穿衣”后接人。You can dress yourself, baby。

  Lucy is dressing her little brother now。

  be dressed in后常接具有某种特征的衣物。也可直接加表示颜色的词。

  The lady is dressed in a white skirt. The students are all dressed in yellow。

  get dressed “穿好衣服”,常不接宾语: He went out as soon as he got dressed。

  dress up (as) .。。“装扮(成)....。。” He dressed up as a clown. 他装扮成小丑。

  4in, “穿着”后接具有某种特征的衣物,表状态,是介词,不可作谓语,可作状语。

  也可以直接加表示颜色的词。 The woman in a white skirt is my teacher。

  Do you know the girl in a red coat? (你认识那个穿着红外套的姑娘吗?)

  I want to talk to the boy in black. (我想找那个穿着黑衣服的男孩谈谈。)

  8.虚拟语气部分用法:在非真实条件句中要用虚拟语气,即if 从句中用一般过去时,而主句动词用would / should + 动词原形,表示与现在相反的主观设想,也可以表示在说话人看来实现的可能性很小的情况。(注意:虚拟语气中的be动词都要用were。)

  If there were no air, people would die. (与现在事实相反)

  If I got rich, I would travel around the world. (可能性很小)

  9.other / others / the other / the others / another:

  1如果不特定指出哪一个,是泛指,“另一个”要用another, 后加可数名词单数。

  If you are still thirsty, you may have another cup of tea。

  (没特定指出哪一杯茶,是泛指。cup是单数。)

  another也可+数字+可数复数:The meeting will last another two hours. (再持续两小时)

  We need another six desks. (此处两句分别相当于:two more hours; six more desks。)

  2如果只有两个或只有两部分,就给出了范围,其中另一个或另一部分是特指 (other前有the。), 有如下用法:

  第一种,所说内容只有两个:

  Mrs. Green has two sons, one is interested in math, the other (one / son) is good at science. 【只有两个,用the other, 不加s, 后面名词可省略。】又如:This pair of shoes is strange. One is blue, yet the other is green. “这双鞋子很怪,一只蓝色,而另一只绿色。”

  第二种,只有两部分:此种情况下the other后接可数名词复数,或不接名词而只在the other后加s. Two children went there, but the other children / the others stayed。

  Two fifths of the students in our class are boys, the other students / the others are girls。

  3如果没有显示出只有两部分,未给出范围,则是泛指,不加the。

  Lei Feng liked helping other people / others. Do you have any other questions?

  Alice didn’t like that dress, so she asked to see some others。

  4other的另一用法:用比较级的形式,体现最高级的含义。

  He is taller than any other boy in his class. (划线中boy常用单数) =

  He is taller than all ( of ) the other boys in his class. (划线中boy用复数)

  他比班里任何男孩都高(他是班里男孩中最高的)。

  10.how long / how often / how soon / how far: 1how long 是对长度或时间段提问。

  How long is the river? -It’s 5,000 kilometers long. (对长度提问)

  How long have you lived there? -For five months. / Since 2002. (对时间段提问)

  2how often是对频率提问,如:never, sometimes, often, usually, always, once a week,

  twice a day, three times a year, every day / year / month / week等。

  How often do you watch TV? -Every two days. / Twice a week. / Sometimes。

  【若只有次数,则用how many times 提问:

  How many times do you watch TV a week? -Twice. / only once.】

  3how soon 是对“in + 时间段”提问:

  How soon will you return to Beijing? -In a week./ In two days。

  4how far是对以下三种表达法的提问:

  —How far is it from your home to the school? 有以下三种回答:

  ▲—It’s five minutes’ walk / an hour’s ride / thirteen minutes’ drive。

  ▲—It’s about 20 kilometers (far) away. (注意回答时不再用far,而用away, 或far away)

  ▲—It’s 15 minutes by bus / on foot / by train / by bike。

  11.分数表达:二分之一: half a / an 或a half. 如:

  half an hour = a half hour半小时 It’s half past seven。(省略冠词)

  以下情况中,分子(基数词)若超过一,分母(序数词)需加s:

  三分之一: a / one third 三分之二: two thirds

  四分之一: a / one fourth 或a / one quarter

  四分之三: three fourths或three quarters。

  五分之一: a / one fifth 五分之二: two fifths 其它类推。

  若分数所在of短语作主语,谓语依of后的名词而定:

  A third of the boys have passed the test. A third of the work has been over。

  Two fifths of the students are on time. Two fifths of the land is polluted。

  (of后是可数名词复数时,谓语用复数;of后是不可数名词时,谓语用单数。)

  12.到达:1get to + 地点 get to Shanghai / London / China

  接地点副词时,不带to. get there / home / here。

  2arrive in+大地点(如Beijing / Zhengzhou),arrive at+小地点(如school / hospital)

  arrive只作不及物动词,所以也可单独用:Please ring me up when you arrive。

  3reach只作及物动词,后直接加地点:reach Beijing / England

  但常不说reach home / there / here。

  13.感叹句:1What + 名词短语+主语+谓语!此情况下主、谓常可省略。

  What lazy boys (they are)! What hard work (it is)! What good news (it is)!

  What a good idea! What bad weather (it is)! What clever girls (you are)!

  2How +形容词 / 副词 + 主语 + 谓语!

  How hard the work is! How fast he runs! How rude you are!

  How carefully they are listening! How bad the weather is!

  14.because/ instead / out等与加of的区别:

  1because 后接句子,because of 接名词或代词。

  He didn’t come because he was ill. / because of his illness。

  2instead是副词,单独在句尾。instead of 后要接名词或代词。

  We didn’t have rice, we had noodles instead. / instead of it。

  3out 副词,可单独用,但若接地点,先加of。(也可作介词, “向…外”,

  可不加of. 一般不要求掌握。) He went out early。或He went out of the house early。

  15.too much, too many与much too:

  much too“过于”,加形容词或副词原级。much too big / slowly等。

  too much“太多的”,加不可数名词。too much work / rain等。

  too many“太多的”,加可数复数。too many books / people等。

  (以上每个短语可依第二个词来决定其后要接什么词。)

  16. alone / lonely: 1alone,“独自一人;单独”不含感情色彩。

  可当形容词,但只在系动词后作表语:Jack is alone. 杰克是单身。

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