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2014ACCA《最新《审计与认证业务F8》重点总结四(1)

2014-01-11 来源:读书人 

  ELEVANT TO CAT QUALIFICATION PAPER 8 AND ACCA QUALIFICATION

  PAPERS F8 AND P7

  SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF AUDITING IN A

  COMPUTER-BASED ENVIRONMENT

  Information technology (IT) is integral to modern accounting and management

  information systems. It is, therefore, imperative that auditors should be fully

  aware of the impact of IT on the audit of a client’s financial statements, both in

  the context of how it is used by a client to gather, process and report financial

  information in its financial statements, and how the auditor can use IT in the

  process of auditing the financial statements.

  The purpose of this article is to provide guidance on following aspects of

  auditing in a computer-based accounting environment:

  ? Application controls, comprising input, processing, output and master

  file controls established by an audit client, over its computer-based

  accounting system and

  ? Computer-assisted audit techniques (CAATs) that may be employed by

  auditors to test and conclude on the integrity of a client’s

  computer-based accounting system.

  Exam questions on each of the aspects identified above are often answered to

  an inadequate standard by a significant number of students – hence the reason

  for this article.

  Dealing with application controls and CAATs in turn:

  APPLICATION CONTROLS

  Application controls are those controls (manual and computerised) that relate

  to the transaction and standing data pertaining to a computer-based

  accounting system. They are specific to a given application and their objectives

  are to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the accounting records and

  the validity of entries made in those records. An effective computer-based

  system will ensure that there are adequate controls existing at the point of

  input, processing and output stages of the computer processing cycle and over

  standing data contained in master files. Application controls need to be

  ascertained, recorded and evaluated by the auditor as part of the process of

  determining the risk of material misstatement in the audit client’s financial

  statements.

  Input controls

  Control activities designed to ensure that input is authorised, complete,

  accurate and timely are referred to as input controls. Dependent on the

  complexity of the application program in question, such controls will vary in

  terms of quantity and sophistication. Factors to be considered in determining

  these variables include cost considerations, and confidentiality requirements

  with regard to the data input. Input controls common to most effective

  application programs include on-screen prompt facilities (for example, a

  request for an authorised user to ‘log-in’) and a facility to produce an audit

  2

  SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF AUDITING IN A COMPUTER-BASED

  ENVIRONMENT

  JANUARY 2011

  trail allowing a user to trace a transaction from its origin to disposition in the

  system.

  Specific input validation checks may include:

  Format checks

  These ensure that information is input in the correct form. For example, the

  requirement that the date of a sales invoice be input in numeric format only –

  not numeric and alphanumeric.

  Range checks

  These ensure that information input is reasonable in line with expectations. For

  example, where an entity rarely, if ever, makes bulk-buy purchases with a value

  in excess of $50,000, a purchase invoice with an input value in excess of

  $50,000 is rejected for review and follow-up.

  Compatibility checks

  These ensure that data input from two or more fields is compatible. For

  example, a sales invoice value should be compatible with the amount of sales

  tax charged on the invoice.

  Validity checks

  These ensure that the data input is valid. For example, where an entity

  operates a job costing system – costs input to a previously completed job

  should be rejected as invalid.

  Exception checks

  These ensure that an exception report is produced highlighting unusual

  situations that have arisen following the input of a specific item. For example,

  the carry forward of a negative value for inventory held.

  Sequence checks

  These facilitate completeness of processing by ensuring that documents

  processed out of sequence are rejected. For example, where pre-numbered

  goods received notes are issued to acknowledge the receipt of goods into

  physical inventory, any input of notes out of sequence should be rejected.

  Control totals

  These also facilitate completeness of processing by ensure that pre-input,

  manually prepared control totals are compared to control totals input. For

  example, non-matching totals of a ‘batch’ of purchase invoices should result in

  an on-screen user prompt, or the production of an exception report for

  follow-up. The use of control totals in this way are also commonly referred to

  as output controls (see below).



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